Posts Tagged ‘citizenship form’

The LPR population includes persons granted lawful permanent residence (green card) holders, but not those who had become US citizens. Data for the estimates were obtained primarily from administrative records of USCIS. The methodology used to figure out the 2010 estimates is the same as that was used in previous DHS estimates. An estimated 12.6 million green card holders lived in the US on January 1, 2010 and out of these 8.1 million were eligible for American citizenship.

Green card holders (LPRs) are eligible to file the citizenship form, N-400 after meeting certain requirements. Most LPRs have to fulfill a five-year residency requirement for naturalization. Spouses of US citizens can apply in three years. It was assumed that all LPRs have to satisfy a five-year residency requirement except for those whose status was as a spouse of a US citizen. Certain categories of immigrants receive credit for the period prior to the actual grant of LPR status. The credited time or earlier dates are not included in the residency records used for this analysis and must be estimated. Asylees are credited one year in asylum status toward their LPR status. So Asylees qualify for naturalization four years after approval of their adjustment of status application.

It is estimated that 12.6 million legal permanent residents were living in the US on January 1, 2010. Out of this 12.6 million, an estimated 8.1 million qualify for naturalization. Between January 2008 and 2010, the total LPR population and LPR population eligible for naturalization more or less remained the same. In general, the size of the LPR population changes less rapidly than the total legally resident population because increases in the number of persons becoming LPRs each year are offset by persons who opt for naturalization.

Per USCIS administrative records, 25.2 million foreign nationals obtained LPR status between 1980 and 2009. At the end of 2009, an estimated 9.7 million (38 percent) had naturalized, 1.3 million (5 percent) had derived citizenship before becoming 18 years old and 3.2 million (13 percent) died or emigrated. An estimated 4.6 million LPRs do not qualify for naturalization, leaving 8.1 million LPRs eligible to apply to naturalize in 2010.


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To qualify for American citizenship, you have to show that you resided continuously in the U.S. for five years before filing the citizenship form. If you are applying based on marriage to a US citizen, then it is three years of continuous residence. Continuous residence plainly means that you have maintained residence within the US for the required period of time as mentioned above.

If you away from the US for an extended period of time, it may disrupt the continuous residence requirement. If you are absent from the US for more than six months but less than one year, it may disrupt your continuous residence unless you can prove otherwise.

In almost all cases, if you leave the United States for 1 year or more, you have disrupted your continuous residence. This is true even if you have a Re-entry Permit. If you leave the country for 1 year or longer, you may be eligible to re-enter as a Permanent Resident if you have a Re-entry Permit. But none of the time you were in the United States before you left the country counts toward your time in continuous residence.

If you return within 2 years, some of your time out of the country does count. In fact, the last 364 days of your time out of the country (1 year minus 1 day) counts toward meeting your continuous residence requirement.

Physical Presence :

You have to prove that you were physically present in the US for thirty months within the five year period before filing the citizenship form. If you are applying based on marriage to a US citizen, the the requirement is eighteen months within the three year period.

In addition, applicants have to prove that they have resided for at least three months immediately preceding the filing of Form N-400 in the USCIS district or state where the applicant claims to have residency


There are certain exceptions to the continuous residence requirement for those applicants working abroad for the US government (including the Military), contractors of the US government , a recognized American institution of research, a public international organization OR an organization designated under the International Immunities Act

Should you need to preserve your continuous residence for naturalization purposes while employed abroad by one of these recognized institutions, you are required to file Form N-470, Application to Preserve Residence for Naturalization Purposes with the USCIS.

An organization can get USCIS recognition as an American institution of research for the purpose of preserving the continuous residence status of its employees who are planning to get naturalized and are assigned abroad for an extended period of time.


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If you are applying for American citizenship, you have to establish an understanding of English language and also prove your ability to speak, write and read words in normal usage. It is mandatory that you have basic knowledge and understanding of fundamentals of US history. These both form the US citizenship test.

Not all are required to take the test. Certain applicants are exempted from taking these tests considering their age and other medically determinable physical or mental impairment. If you are seeking an exception from the English and US civics test because of physical or age-linked disability or mental deficiency that lasted for more than a year, you are required to submit the Form N-648. Per immigration laws and regulations, a licensed medical doctor or licensed clinical psychologist has to complete and sign this form This has to be included in the naturalization application (Form N-400) package. The USCIS will decide if you qualify for an exception to the tests.

There are many provisions in the Rehabilitation act of 1973, and if you satisfy them, you need not submit Form N-648. The provisions included sign language interpreters, time extension for testing and off site testing. Another important factor to remember is that illiteracy will not be considered while requesting an exception from the English and Civics tests. You are required to indicate your request in Part three of the Form N-400 while applying for American Citizenship.

Form N-648

Generally, it is the “medical doctors, doctors of osteopathy, or clinical psychologists licensed to practice in US including territories like Guam, Puerto Rico, territories of CNMI and the Virgin Islands” who have the authorization to fill out this form. The medical professional claims all responsibility to the information given in the form. It is mandatory that the medical professional certify all parts of the Form N-648 except for the applicant attestation and interpreter’s certification. The medical professional should also make sure that form is complete and accurate as USCIS do not accept incomplete forms. The form has to be filled in such a manner that it is easily understood by a person without medical training. Per the requirements, a lengthy assessment of the applicant’s physical and developmental disability or mental impairment has to be detailed by the medical professional and medical diagnostic report or records have to be included as evidence.

As mentioned earlier, the medical professional and the applicant both have to attest the Form N-648, claiming responsibility for the information provided in the form. There is no filing fee and this form should be mailed along with the citizenship form, N-400. If there is any false statement with respect to the information provided in the form, affidavit or other supporting documents required by the immigration law or regulations or if the applicant presents any such document, he/she will be fined or imprisoned for not more than 10 years or both.

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As a Lawful Permanent Resident, if you have to travel abroad for a considerable length of time, make sure you take certain steps to assure that your permanent resident status is not lost.

As a LPR, you have to file tax returns under all circumstances with the IRS annually. Filing a tax return as a LPR does not necessarily mean that you should actually pay income tax if you are employed overseas, because treaties and foreign tax credits may minimize the tax amount actually paid to the IRS.

If you are employed abroad or have to travel overseas for a considerable length of time, it can prove handy if your immediate family members, including any spouse, children, and parents remain in the US. Having strong family ties to the US shows your intention to keep your permanent resident status.

Employment abroad is one of the most commonly used reason why LPRs are absent from the US for a long period. A written statement from the employer, or an employment contract identifying the length of the overseas job, will be of much help with regard to the LPR’s intention to maintain his/her permanent resident status.

If you are not engaged in overseas employment and have no family members in the US, find ways to establish other strong ties.Before leaving the US, open a bank account with a US bank, and leave it open and use it during your stay abroad.

If you wish to remain outside the US for more than one year, but less than two years, you can apply for a re-entry permit. As mentioned earlier, if you travel abroad for a period longer than one year, you face a risk of denial of admission into the US on the ground that you have abandoned your permanent resident status. A Re-entry Permit solves this problem.

A prolonged absence from the US will break the continuity of your residence in the US for naturalization purposes. However, it will not affect your ability to return to the US as a permanent resident.

In order to qualify for American Citizenship, you must reside in the US for a continuous period of five years after lawful admission to the US as a permanent resident and prior to filing the citizenship form. If you are married to a US citizen, you must reside in the US for a continuous period of three years after being admitted to the US as a permanent resident and prior to application for naturalization. Apart form this , you must physically reside in the US for at least half of the period required for continuous residence. However, spouses of US citizens who are US military personnel or who have overseas employment with US employers are exempted from these requirements.

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The starting step to legally immigrate to the United States is to get an immigrant visa. Most foreign nationals get visas by being sponsored by close family members or employers. Others get visas as asylees or refugees, fleeing persecution in their home countries. There are four most common ways to get an immigrant visa.

Family-based: A US citizen or a legal permanent resident (green card holder) can sponsor a family member for immigration. Waiting periods for getting such visas differ depending on the closeness of the relationship with the sponsor, and processing times can be lengthy, because a limited number of visas are available each year

Employment-Based: Qualified US employers can sponsor a potential foreign employee for immigration. In certain cases, extraordinarily-qualified foreign nationals can immigrate without being sponsored by an employer. It is required that employer sponsors demonstrate that there are no sufficient number of qualified workers available in the US to fulfill their need. The processing time can last 7 to 8 years because of the restriction on the number of visas.

Asylum and Refugee Status: Visas are also available to people who are unable or not willing to return to their home country because of persecution or a well founded fear of persecution due to race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion. To put it in simple terms, asylee status is granted in the United States and refugee status is granted abroad.

Diversity Lottery: Foreign nationals who wish to migrate to the US but do not have a family member or employer to sponsor them, can apply for the Diversity Lottery Program. Only 50,000 winners are issued visas every year through this program. Not all countries are eligible to enter this program. The aim of this program is to promote immigration from underrepresented countries, so each year the State Department issues a list of countries whose citizens may not apply.

An foreign national should have a legal immigrant visa to be eligible for legal permanent resident status and US citizenship, but the visa alone is not sufficient. To get a green card, the foreign national has to apply to adjust his status to legal permanent resident. The Department of Homeland Security

will verify that there are no medical, financial, criminal or prior immigration violation grounds to reject the application.

Many people seek the help of an attorney to navigate the sophisticated process. Legal permanent residents qualify for American citizenship after five years. If they are married to a US citizen and living with that citizen spouse, they will qualify for American citizenship after three years. To qualify for citizenship, they must demonstrate good moral character and have a basic knowledge of English, U.S. history and government. The citizenship form, N-400 costs $680 that includes a $85 biometric fee.

US immigration law is a sort of administrative law. Immigration legal procedures like deportations do not go through the US Judicial system. They take place within the US Department of Justice. As deportation is considered an administrative correction and not a criminal punishment, undocumented immigrants (illegals) facing deportation do not have the right to legal counsel provided by the government. As most cannot afford legal representation, they have to face the system by themselves.

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To qualify for American citizenship, you have to meet certain eligibility requirements. One of the requirements is that you should be a person of good moral character. You will not be considered to be of “good moral character” if you commit certain crimes during the five years prior to filing the citizenship form or even if you lie during their naturalization interview.

Drunk driving or being drunk most of the time, illegal gambling, prostitution, lying to gain immigration benefits, failing to pay court-ordered child support, committing terrorist acts, persecuting someone because of race, religion, national origin, political opinion, or social group are few of the behaviors that show lack of good moral character.

There are certain crimes that will bar you from becoming an American citizen and if you commit those, you will most likely be removed from the US. These crimes are commonly referred as “bars” to naturalization. Crimes that are “aggravated felonies” are murder, rape, sexual abuse of a child, violent assault, treason, and illegal trafficking in drugs, firearms, or people are some examples of permanent bars to naturalization.

Immigrants who were exempted or discharged from serving in the US Armed Forces and immigrants who deserted from the US Armed Forces are also permanently barred from American Citizenship. The chances of being denied citizenship is more if you behave in other ways that show you lack good moral character. There are other crimes that are temporary bars to naturalization. Temporary bars generally prevent you from becoming a US citizen for up to five years after you commit the crime.

While filing the citizenship form, it is very important that you report any crime to the USCIS. Even if the crime was removed from your record or committed before your 18th birthday, ensure that you report it.. If you are not transparent in such disclosures, citizenship will denied and you could also be prosecuted. So do not hide anything.

At times, the immigration process might be a bit sophisticated. You can use the services of a licensed and competent immigration lawyer should you need any assistance. The local bar association can be of help in finding a qualified lawyer. Some states also tend to certify specialists in US immigration law. However, it is fully your responsibility for determining whether to hire a particular attorney. If you do not have enough money to hire a lawyer, you can avail some low cost or free assistance options. You can get help from:

  • A Recognized Organization : These are recognized by the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA). To qualify, the organization should have sufficient knowledge and experience to provide services to immigrants. They charge or accept a very minimal fee for providing such services.
  • An Accredited Representative : Such persons are connected to BIA “recognized organizations.” These accredited representatives too charge a minimal fee for the services they render.
  • A Qualified Representative : These persons offer free services. They are required to have knowledge about US immigration law and the rules of practice in court. Law school students and graduates and people with good moral character who have a personal or professional affiliation with you come under this category.
  •  Free Legal Service Providers : There are many attorneys and organizations available to represent immigrants in proceedings before Immigration Courts. Attorneys and organizations help immigrants pro bono (free of charge) only in immigration proceedings. Some may not be able to help you with non-court-related issues such as visa petitions, naturalization, etc.


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A person residing in any country illegally is known as an “illegal immigrant.” Some illegals enter the US illegally whereas others, though they enter legally, they overstay the number of days permitted on their visa or infringe the terms of their green card or refugee permit. They move to the US in search of a better life.

Some immigrants leave their country because of certain political/economic reasons. Persons wish to immigrate to the US as it is technologically advanced, has greater resources and provides plentiful opportunities. Children born in the US to illegal immigrants automatically gain American citizenship.

Illegal immigrants get their “illegal” status by entering the US illegally. There is an indefinitely greater number of ways that immigrants cross the border to get into the US. Those from the Caribbean often cross the Atlantic Ocean to reach US. Some immigrants from South America may get into Mexico and get the assistance of a smuggler or others to help them cross the border illegally into the US.

Shipping containers, trucks, or boxcars are also used by certain illegals to cross the border into the US . With increased security measures and much improved technology, it becomes even more difficult to cross the border and avoid being detected. Immigrants actually try numerous times before successfully crossing the border.

Once the illegals get into the US, they tend to get employed in “low skilled jobs.” These low skilled jobs are labor intensive and don’t draw many employees. Construction sectors provide lot of opportunities as there is generally no sound requirement. Restaurants, hospitality, prostitution, agriculture and domestic service are other sectors where illegal immigrants are prominent. Though there is a general perception that illegal immigrants only take on the jobs that residents or US citizens refuse, in fact take away jobs in general.

Though US laws strictly prohibit employers from hiring illegal immigrants, some employers tend to take advantage of an employee’s “undocumented” status. The employer has an advantage where he can pay the illegal immigrant lesser than what the federal law requires. Also, they do not worry about human rights violations with illegal immigrants as they will not report their employer because they fear they might be deported. Though there are penalties for employers who hire illegal immigrants, they are not always imposed.

Off late, there was a significant change in immigration enforcement and it is commendable as companies face stiffer penalties and are bound to get negative publicity for hiring illegal workers. Young girls fall prey at times. They tend to get job offers from a foreign country and think the job offers great financial opportunities. And because of their bad economic situation back home, they take up this job offer. However, only after arriving in the foreign country, they come to know that they were brought into the country for the purpose of prostitution. With no where to go for help, and miles away from their country, they become victims to this trade. For many of them, it is a way of getting out of poverty. Though on a smaller scale in the US, this problem is in higher numbers in the Middle East and Europe.

Illegals seem to forget the benefits of a legal stay in the US. They forget that if in legal status, they can get a green card that will enable them to live and work in the US permanently. Later, they might also qualify for citizenship and can apply for through Form N-400, the citizenship form.




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